Automotive & Trucks
The strength, reliability and economy of forgings make them ideal for important automotive and truck applications. Forgings are often found at points of impact and stress, such as wheel axles, main pins, axles and shafts, torsion bars, ball studs, idler arms, steering arms and steering arms. Another common application is in powertrains, where connecting rods, drive shafts and hot forged gears, differentials, drive shafts, clutch hubs and universal joints are often forged. Although carbon or alloy steel is commonly used for forging, other materials such as aluminium and micro-alloyed steel have made great strides in forging automotive and truck applications.
Agricultural machinery and equipment
Strength, toughness and economy are also important in agricultural implements. In addition to engine and transmission components, critical forgings subject to impact and fatigue range from gears, shafts, levers and spindles to tie rod ends, spiked harrow teeth and tiller shafts.
Forgings are often associated with high pressure applications in the valve and tubing industry due to their excellent mechanical properties and lack of porosity. Corrosion and heat resistant materials are used for flanges, valve bodies and stems, tees, elbows reducers, saddles and other fittings. Oilfield applications include rock driller bits, drilling hardware and high pressure valves and fittings.
Forging has traditionally been a hallmark of quality in hand tools and hardware. Pliers, hammers, crawlers, spanners and gardening tools are common examples, as are wire rope clamps, sockets, hooks, screw fasteners and eyebolts. Surgical and dental instruments are also frequently forged. Special hardware for transmission and distribution lines, such as base covers, suspension clips, sockets and brackets are often forged for strength, reliability and corrosion resistance.
Off-road equipment/railway strength, toughness, machinability and economy are the reasons for the many uses of forging in off-road and heavy construction equipment, mining equipment and material handling applications. In addition to engine and transmission parts, forgings are used for a variety of gears, sprockets, levers, shafts, spindles, ball and socket joints, hubs, rollers, fork frames, axle beams, bearing housings and connecting rods.
Large forgings are often found in industrial equipment and machinery used in the steel, textile, paper, power generation and transmission, chemical and refining industries. Typical forging configurations include rods, blanks, blocks, connecting rods, cylinders, discs, elbows, rings, T-shaped, shafts and sleeves.
Forged components can be found in almost all defence tools, from rifle triggers to nuclear submarine drive shafts. Heavy tanks, missiles, armoured personnel carriers, artillery shells and other heavy artillery are common applications for forged parts related to defence.
High strength-to-weight ratios and structural reliability can favourably influence the performance, range and payload capacity of aircraft. Forgings are made from a variety of ferrous, non-ferrous and special alloy materials and are used in a wide range of commercial aircraft, helicopters, piston engine aircraft, military aircraft and spacecraft. Some examples of forgings whose versatility in size, shape and characteristics make them ideal components include bulkheads, wing roots and beams, hinges, engine mounts, brackets, cross members, shafts, landing gear cylinders and struts, wheels, brake seats and discs and snap hooks. In jet turbine engines, iron-based, nickel-based and cobalt-based high temperature alloys are forged into components such as disks, blades, vanes, couplings, manifolds, rings, chambers and shafts.
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