1. Free forging. Refers to a method of processing a forging that uses a simple universal tool or an external force directly applied to the blank between the upper and lower anvil of the forging equipment to deform the blank to obtain the desired geometry and internal quality. Forgings produced by the free forging method are called free forgings. Free forging is mainly for the production of forgings with small quantities, and forgings are processed by forging equipment such as forging hammers and hydraulic machines to obtain qualified forgings. The basic processes of free forging include upsetting, lengthening, punching, cutting, bending, twisting, misalignment and forging. Free forging is a hot forging method.
2, die forging. Die forging is divided into open die forging and closed die forging. The metal blank is subjected to compression deformation in a forging die having a certain shape to obtain a forged piece, and the die forging is generally used for producing a part having a small weight and a large batch size. Die forging can be divided into hot forging, warm forging and cold forging. Warm forging and cold forging are the future development directions of die forging, and also represent the level of forging technology.
According to the material, die forging can also be divided into black metal die forging, non-ferrous metal die forging and powder product forming. As the name implies, the materials are ferrous metals such as carbon steel, non-ferrous metals such as copper and aluminum, and powder metallurgy materials.
Extrusion should be attributed to die forging and can be divided into heavy metal extrusion and light metal extrusion.
3, grinding ring. Rolling ring refers to the production of ring-shaped parts of different diameters by special equipment grinding machine, and also used to produce wheel-shaped parts such as automobile wheels and train wheels.
4. Special forging. Special forging includes roll forging, cross wedge rolling, radial forging, liquid die forging, etc. These methods are more suitable for the production of parts with special shapes. For example, roll forging can be used as an effective preforming process to significantly reduce subsequent forming pressures; cross wedge rolling can produce steel balls, drive shafts, etc.; radial forging can produce large forgings such as barrels and step shafts.
According to the movement mode of the forging die, forging can be divided into pendulum, pendulum swivel, roll forging, cross wedge rolling, boring ring and cross rolling.
In order to improve the utilization of materials, roll forging and cross rolling can be used as a front-end process for slender materials. The same rotary forging as free forging is also partially formed, which has the advantage that it can be formed in the case of a smaller forging force than the forging size. This type of forging, including free forging, expands from the vicinity of the mold surface to the free surface during processing. Therefore, it is difficult to ensure accuracy. Therefore, the movement direction of the forging die and the swaging process can be controlled by computer. The forging force obtains products with complex shapes and high precision, such as forgings such as steam turbine blades with large variety and large size.
The die motion and degree of freedom of the forging equipment are inconsistent. According to the characteristics of the bottom dead center deformation, the forging equipment can be divided into the following four forms:
1. Limit the form of forging force: the hydraulic press that directly drives the slider by oil pressure.
2. Quasi-stroke limiting mode: hydraulic press that drives the crank-link mechanism.
3, stroke limit mode: crank, connecting rod and wedge mechanism drive the mechanical press of the slider.
4, energy limit mode: the use of screw mechanism spiral and friction press.
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